The court had its full complement of nine justices, five conservatives and four liberals, for arguments for the first time since Justice Antonin Scalia's death in February 2016.
But in an unusual move, the court delayed oral arguments, which will take place on Wednesday.
Precisely at 10 a.m Monday, Gorsuch joined his new colleagues in appearing from behind the regal burgundycurtains to take his seat.
"It was Justice Gorsuch's views on religious liberty that might have been the most persuasive thing to conservative advocates when he was nominated".
Lastly, for a shot biography, including affiliations and past positions, you can look at Justice Gorsuch's profile on Westlaw.
Throughout the one-hour argument, Gorsuch stepped in three times, posing a series of questions each time, Reuters reports.
The results of the conference will be announced Monday morning at 9:30 a.m. ET.
Katyal was also scheduled to argue before the justices on April 25 on behalf of Bristol-Myers Squibb Co in a case over out-of-state injury claims.
The immigrants had been seeking asylum and their lawyers argued they faced what they called "gender-based violence" if they returned home.
He was sworn in on April 10, leaving him a week to prepare for the current and final round of cases of this Supreme Court term. Katyal, who served as acting solicitor general in Democratic former President Barack Obama's Justice Department, represented the town.
One of the lawyers in the case, Neal Katyal, was a familiar face to Gorsuch, having heartily endorsed his nomination, even testifying at his Senate Judiciary Committee confirmation hearing.
The first case heard Monday was one such dispute. And justices routinely hear cases involving lawyers with whom they once worked or are friends. Missouri's constitution says no state money can ever be spent to aid a church. The church sued, alleging that it was a violation of the equal protections and free exercise clauses of the U.S. Constitution.
A recycled scrap tire is not religious, the church said in its Supreme Court brief.
The junior justice on the Supreme Court has a number of duties created to serve as a reminder of their status as well as help them get accustomed to the job.
Missouri Gov. Eric Greitens recently announced his administration would reverse course and allow religious organizations to apply for and be eligible for such state grants.
"No, just to continue to make it up", Gorsuch said, according to Bloomberg.
"That's just wrong", he said. The court on Friday asked both the church and the state to tell it whether the governor's announcement affects the case.
The justices sit by order of seniority, with the two longest-serving members of the court flanking the chief justice.
The Supreme Court has upheld some school voucher programs, and state courts have ratified others.