After the votes had been tallied, the motion for a 2017 United Kingdom general election was approved by an overwhelming margin of 522 for and 13 against.
Conservative Party chairman Sir Patrick McLoughlin then seized on the comments, insisting Mr Corbyn was sowing "chaos" which would "disrupt our Brexit negotiations".
It also has the hallmarks of a campaign by the former shadow education secretary Tristram Hunt in the run-up to the 2015 general election.
The Labour party has seen a significant decline in polls since the last general election, as it struggles with infighting over its leader Jeremy Corbyn, and its unclear position on Brexit.
However, Corbyn refused to say whether there would be a pledge for a second Brexit referendum in Labour's forthcoming manifesto, in response to journalists' questions following his speech.
Ms May surprised allies and opponents on Tuesday when she announced her plan to bring forward an election that was not due until 2020, saying she needed to avoid a clash of priorities in the sensitive final stages of the two-year Brexit talks.
In fiery exchanges in the House of Commons on Wednesday, May said an early election would strengthen her hand against domestic critics seeking to "frustrate the process" of Brexit, which formally began last month.
With the Labor Party's popularity at a historic low, analysts widely expect Theresa May's Conservatives and their allies to retain a majority in parliament, meaning May would remain prime minister during course of the Brexit negotiations.
May's Conservatives now hold 330 House of Commons seats and Labour 229.
"They say I don't play by the rules -- their rules".
He said: "This always happens with unpopular leaders".
She has also played up the strength of the British economy, which has so far defied predictions of a slowdown, a key campaign theme that her Conservative Party will use to try to undermine Labour in the election.
Pledges in the manifesto will make it hard for Tories who voted to remain in the European Union to oppose on the Brexit plans if the Conservatives win the snap election.
Labour was not the only party to lose MPs ahead of the election.
"We are a party of half a million members and tomorrow in every town and city across the country we are going to be out campaigning on "Flying Start Saturday" to this campaign".
Turning to Scottish Labour leader Kezia Dugdale, she added: "Jeremy Corbyn is unelectable and will leave Labour carping from the sidelines - how do we know that?"
They, more than any other party, are split by Brexit, with many Labour MPs tentative about being a pro-Brexit, screw-the-eu-it-was-no-good-for-us-anyway gang.